Potentially exponentially stronger machines could reduce emissions dramatically, making it possible for global warming to be contained. Quantum Computing is a new technology that could revolutionize climate change. It will transform the economy of decarbonization and limit global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius (see sidebar: What is quantum computing?”
Experts believe that the first phase of fault-lenient quantum computer technology will be achieved in the demi-decade. The pace of technological breakthroughs is increasing, funding is flowing in and there are more start-ups. Although these machines are smaller, less powerful, and more efficient than fully-equipped quantum computers, they can’t perform the same calculations as larger, more sophisticated machines.
The 2021 UNFCCC set ambitious goals for countries and corporations to reduce their carbon emissions. These goals, if they are reached, would denote an astonishing yearly investment of US$ 4 trillion. This is the largest capital reallocation ever made in history. The measures will not reduce global warming from 1.7 to 1.8 degrees Celsius by 2050. This is much lower than the 1.5degC threshold needed to prevent runaway, catastrophic climate change.
It is unlikely that we can achieve zero radiation without major technological advancements in environmental technology. These problems are not within the capabilities of supercomputers. These areas could be helped by quantum computing. Quantum computing might act as a catalyst in climate technology, reducing carbon emissions by 7 gigatons each year 2 and bringing the world to 1.5degC.
Quantum computing can help decrease emissions in around most stimulating or polluting areas, like farming and direct air imprisonment. Quantum computing could also speed up technological advancements at large scales, like solar boards or batteries.
So far, no solution to unsolvable problems
Quantum computing can have a major impact on the economy. Quantum computing could reduce carbon emissions as well as remove carbon.
5 quantum-computing applications have been identified that could result in the economy. These use cases will help us reduce atmospheric CO2 equal (CO2e) by over 7 gigatons each year.
1. energizing our lives
The only way to achieve 0-carbon electrification of electricity is by using batteries. They are vital to cut CO2 emanations from transport as well as to provide grid-scale storage for sporadic energy sources like solar cells, wind, and other energy sources like solar cells and wind.
Li-Ion’s improved energy density (Li-Ion), allows for both affordable electric vehicle applications and energy storage. Over the past decade, innovation has been slow. Between 2011-2016, the battery power density improved by 50%. However, it has only increased by 25% between 2016 to 2020. It is expected that it will rise by only 17% between 2020-2025.
2 – Acclimating industrial processes
Many industries emit releases that are hard to reduce or prohibitively costly.
Cement is one example. For clinker, the raw materials are released during calcination in an oven. About two-thirds (or more) of cement production are caused by this process.
Other cement-binding ingredients, or “clinkers”, be able to reduce these emissions. However, at this time, there is no alternative to clinker which can expressively lessen emissions for an affordable price.
There are several options for designing such products, but testing them by experiment for error can be costly and time-consuming. Quantum computing might assist simulate hypothetical material mixtures to discover one that kills today’s challenges–availability, and the durability of materials. This would increase the annual output by one gigaton to 2035.
3 Fuel, De-carbonizing power
Solar cells can be a significant power-generating source in the economy. Even though solar cells are cheaper, they have a low hypothetical maximum efficiency.
Today’s solar cells depend upon crystalline silicon and have an effect of around 20%. Alternatives that use solar cells with perovskite structures might be more efficient. The theoretical effectiveness of these solar cells is up to 40%. They are unstable and may be toxic in some variations. This technology is not yet mass-produced.
By 2035, This technology can help reduce CO2 emissions by 0.4 gigatons.
Many consider hydrogen an alternative to fossil fuels. This is particularly true for industries that require high temperatures and where electrification is not feasible or sufficient.
Before the rise in natural gas prices in 2022, green hydrogen is 60% cheaper than natural gas. However, hydrogen’s cost could be dramatically reduced by improving electrolysis.
The PEM Electrolyzer, which splits water, is one of the supreme efficient ways to create green hydrogen.
These improvements could lead to an increase in hydrogen usage, which could reduce CO2 emissions by 11.1 gigatons more by 2030.
It currently accounts for 2% of the global total energy consumption. Ammonia is most often used as fertilizer, but it can also be utilized in fueling ships around the globe.
The current method for making ammonia, which is energy-intensive, is the Haber-Bosch procedure which uses natural gas.
4 Increasing carbon capture activities and carbon confiscation activities
Carbon seizure is essential to reach net zero. Quantum computing could be used to aid both direct source and point carbon capture.
Point-source capture permits CO 2 to be directly taken from industrialized sources like a steel blast furnace or cement blast furnace. Due to its energy-intensive nature, most CO2 capture is not feasible economically.
Using novel solvents like water-lean and multiphase solvents is one way to solve this problem. It is however tricky for molecular scientists to predict material properties at the molecular level.
Quantum computing promises more accurate modeling of molecular structure. This will allow for the development of new solvents that are effective for various CO2 sources. This could reduce the cost of CO2 by as much as 30% to 50%.
This could help to reduce the carbon footprint of industrial processes. This could lead to further decarbonization, up to 1.5 gigatons per annum including cement. Even if the cement-clinker strategy is successful, it will still impact fuel emissions of up to 0.5 gigatons each year. In some regions, alternative clinkers may not be possible.
Direct-air capture is an option to reduce carbon emissions. It involves taking CO2 out of the air. Although this is the best way to eliminate carbon, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change states that it is necessary. However, it is more expensive than point-source capture and can cost up to $600 per ton.
The best use of adsorbents is for direct-air capture. However, new approaches such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have the potential to significantly reduce energy consumption and capital costs. MOFs can act as a sponge, with a surface area of up to a football field. They can also absorb and release CO2 at lower temperatures than traditional technology.
Shift 5: Reforming food, forest
Agriculture accounts for 20% of annual greenhouse-gas emissions. 7.9 gigatons of CO 2e are mainly emitted by cattle and dairy animals, based on a global warming potential of 20 years.
Research has shown that feed additives containing low levels of methane can reduce methane emissions by up to 90%. These additives are not easily applied to animals that are free to roam.
Another alternative is the Antimethane vaccine which produces methanogen targeting antibodies. This method works in lab conditions but is not effective in cows. Cows are continuously consuming gastric juices and other food. Quantum computing speeds up the search for the correct antibodies. Quantum computing replaces costly trial-and-error methods by allowing precise simulation of molecules. We can reduce carbon emissions by as much as 1 gigaton annually using data from the US Environmental Protection Agency. This is according to US Environmental Protection Agency data.
Another prominent agricultural use is green ammonia. This is the fuel we discussed previously. The Haber-Bosch process today produces large quantities of natural gas. This alternative process could have significant impacts on fertilizers production, which is currently done conventionally. It could produce up to 0.25 gigatons annually by 2035.